Journey Back To Taiwan 不虚此行的台湾之旅 (10): Taiwan's Traditional Hand Puppetry, See-Join Puppet 台湾传统文化艺术布袋戏 - 叙旧布袋戏团
What comes to mind when you think about Taiwanese culture? Taiwan is like a newborn baby that embraces both new creativity and old cultures, a fascinating combination of different periods all melted together. Asia and Taiwan in particular have a rich heritage of puppetry and if you want to experience a traditional Taiwanese wooden puppet show, See-Join Puppet theater located in Taipei is the best place to do it. Hand-puppetry is one of the most representative aspects of traditional Taiwanese culture. During a performance, intricately carved and painted wooden puppets, operated by highly skilled puppeteers, act out traditional historic or folk stories with amazingly lifelike movements.
传统艺术在现代社会中日渐式微? 民间戏曲在都市生活中难以生存? 布袋戏为台湾传统文化中备受瞩目的项目之一. 台湾怀旧 "叙旧布袋戏团” 以布袋戏为主题, 建立起自己的特色, 闯出一番名堂. 我对于布袋戏的印象其实很模糊, 除了看电视上演的霹雳布袋戏之外, 现在已经很少有机会可以见到布袋戏了. 可没想到台湾有一间布袋戏团, 就隐藏在台北市的巷道里. 叙旧布袋戏团里并不堂皇, 木桌子木板凳, 有点拥挤地成排罗列, 前方是一个小小色彩缤纷的木制戏台, 各式戏偶就陈列在墙上与旁边的窗台与桌台, 没有玻璃柜的保护, 也少了隔阂, 让人可以近距离的欣赏与接触这些精巧漂亮的小戏偶.
Taiwanese Hand Puppetry is named as “Bu-dai-xi” (布袋戏). Taiwanese hand puppetry was originally brought over from Southern China during the Qing Dynasty. This particular performing art gained popularity in Taiwan in the 1970s, when hand puppet shows were televised across the country.
不管哪种形式表演, 布袋戏的演出都需要有戏台, 该戏台一方面作为区隔前后台以及观众与演出者之间的功能, 一方面提供演出所需要的戏剧布景. 布袋戏发展之初, 戏台较为简陋, 仅用扁担, 布廉架起简易戏台. 后来布袋戏逐渐受欢迎, 戏台也变得较为复杂, 继而诞生了早期的四角棚.
Puppets on the front left side racks of the shop from entrance.
“Bu-dai-xi” 布袋戏 is not only offering skillful performance on the stage, but also presenting a piece of precious art display. A figure consists of three parts - Heads, Clothing and Headgear and Weapons and Props. “Bu-dai-xi” 布袋戏 has also successfully introduced the traditional Chinese or Taiwanese legend stories to all ages of audiences. The difference between “Bu-dai-xi” 布袋戏 and western puppets is that “Bu-dai-xi” 布袋戏 shows mainly people figures while the western puppets animal figures.
茶饭馆老板也是叙旧布袋戏团的团长陈建华, 非科班出身, 但本身对布袋戏有极高的兴趣, 从十几二十年前就一直持续学习掌中戏至今, 不仅开设第一间布袋戏团, 有不定期表演, 还开班授课, 对于传承台湾文化相当的用心.
听陈团长的分享才知, 布袋戏是从明末清初福建传入, 当时是以历史剧为主, 如三国演义, 西遊记, 封神榜等等, 配乐为现场南北管演奏. 而就平常而言, 除去音乐之外, 布袋戏演出戏码几乎都以口白对话为主, 并没有唱腔歌曲等表现, 这种特色与其他中国传统戏剧有相当大不同.
陈团长拿出练习戏偶, 教我几招操偶技巧, 如走路, 说话, 行走, 跑步到翻跟斗等基本动作. 操偶的手势很简单, 小练一下还勉强可以有模有样, 但翻跟斗这个高难度动作, 可就不是那么容易, 还好木制戏偶禁得起摔, 不然团长可亏大咯！
I am filled with wonder at the sight of the puppeteer’s dexterity in performing the puppet’s movements like real human beings. This also clearly reveals the high standard of Taiwan Puppets as well as the real image of Taiwanese cultural arts.
布袋戏开演后, 戏台上的操偶动作成为演出是否成功的关键因素之一. 就传统布袋戏而言, 布袋戏的小戏偶, 躯干和四肢都是用布料做出的服装, 因此操偶表演者会将单手手掌放入中空戏偶进行表演. 以左手操偶为例, 只要将食指部分套入偶头, 拇指放入布袋戏戏偶右手, 另外三根手指放入戏偶左边左手之后, 即可利用手掌与五指的摇摆或晃动, 来控制戏偶头, 身体与手来作操偶表演. 换句话说, 布袋戏操偶入门相当容易. 操偶人员仅将手放入中空偶身即可做戏偶之点头, 摇头, 行走之表演. 不过因为木制戏偶表情并无变化, 要借由木偶肢体动作表达剧中人物情感尤其重要, 也有其一定难度.
At the See-Join Puppets theater in Taipei, it was an unique experience to interact with the figures of 1970’s most popular TV entertainment - Hand Puppetry. See-Join Hand Puppet Theater is an awesome place to have the stage experience, learn, interact and have fun with the traditional Taiwanese folk art, Hand Puppetry. One can also observe the deftness of the puppeteer’s manipulating skill when controlling a plot that is the life of the puppet show. The audience will appreciate that the standard of a Taiwanese Puppet Show is more difficult, skillful and technical than they have known. If you think puppeteering is easy, you can try your hand at it after the performance and buy your own puppet to take home with you and master the skill. If you can’t make it to a performance, you can still stop by the theater on evenings when there is no performance going on to play with the puppets and have your picture taken.
目前, 台湾布袋戏仍是在递变中, 代表着传统, 固有色彩的古典布袋戏仍有演出, 但己仅限于少数具有古老传承的老戏团. 大多数的剧团, 多是在庙会演出金光布袋戏, 有的极尽声, 光的特技效果, 有的仅能随着录音口白操作戏偶, 而电视布袋戏则是寡头垄断, 仅由少数几个家族成员垄断经营. 叙旧布袋戏团隐身台北闹市一角, 很平实的装潢, 没有华丽的灯光或设备, 没有专业剧目, 却充满了浓浓的人情味. 艺术, 确实不需要形象高贵地正襟危坐.
Journey Back To Taiwan 不虚此行的台湾之旅 (11) - To be continued.....